IBM Research Breakthrough Paves Way for Post-Silicon Future

IBM Research Breakthrough Paves Way for Post-Silicon Future

IBM Research Breakthrough Paves Way for Post-Silicon Future

IBM Research Breakthrough Paves Way for Post-Silicon Future


IBM Research (NYSE: IBM) today announced a major engineering breakthrough that could accelerate carbon nanotubes replacing silicon transistors to power future computing technologies.

IBM scientists demonstrated a new way to shrink transistor contacts without reducing performance of carbon nanotube devices, opening a pathway to dramatically faster, smaller and more powerful computer chips beyond the capabilities of traditional semiconductors. The results will be reported in the October 2 issue of Science (DOI: 10.1126/science.aac8006).

IBM's breakthrough overcomes a major hurdle that silicon and any semiconductor transistor technologies face when scaling down. In any transistor, two things scale: the channel and its two contacts. As devices become smaller, increased contact resistance for carbon nanotubes has hindered performance gains until now. These results could overcome contact resistance challenges all the way to the 1.8 nanometer node – four technology generations away.


IBM Research Breakthrough Paves Way for Post-Silicon Future


Carbon nanotube chips could greatly improve the capabilities of high performance computers, enabling Big Data to be analyzed faster, increasing the power and battery life of mobile devices and the Internet of Things, and allowing cloud data centers to deliver services more efficiently and economically.

Silicon transistors, tiny switches that carry information on a chip, have been made smaller year after year, but they are approaching a point of physical limitation. With Moore's Law running out of steam, shrinking the size of the transistor – including the channels and contacts – without compromising performance has been a vexing challenge troubling researchers for decades.

IBM has previously shown that carbon nanotube transistors can operate as excellent switches at channel dimensions of less than ten nanometers – the equivalent to 10,000 times thinner than a strand of human hair and less than half the size of today’s leading silicon technology. IBM's new contact approach overcomes the other major hurdle in incorporating carbon nanotubes into semiconductor devices, which could result in smaller chips with greater performance and lower power consumption.

Earlier this summer, IBM unveiled the first 7 nanometer node silicon test chip, pushing the limits of silicon technologies and ensuring further innovations for IBM Systems and the IT industry. By advancing research of carbon nanotubes to replace traditional silicon devices, IBM is paving the way for a post-silicon future and delivering on its $3 billion chip R&D investment announced in July 2014.


“These chip innovations are necessary to meet the emerging demands of cloud computing, Internet of Things and Big Data systems,” said Dario Gil, vice president of Science & Technology at IBM Research. “As silicon technology nears its physical limits, new materials, devices and circuit architectures must be ready to deliver the advanced technologies that will be required by the Cognitive Computing era. This breakthrough shows that computer chips made of carbon nanotubes will be able to power systems of the future sooner than the industry expected.”

  IBM Research Breakthrough Paves Way for Post-Silicon Future  


A New Contact for Carbon Nanotubes

Carbon nanotubes represent a new class of semiconductor materials that consist of single atomic sheets of carbon rolled up into a tube. The carbon nanotubes form the core of a transistor device whose superior electrical properties promise several generations of technology scaling beyond the physical limits of silicon.

Electrons in carbon transistors can move more easily than in silicon-based devices, and the ultra-thin body of carbon nanotubes provide additional advantages at the atomic scale. Inside a chip, contacts are the valves that control the flow of electrons from metal into the channels of a semiconductor. As transistors shrink in size, electrical resistance increases within the contacts, which impedes performance. Until now, decreasing the size of the contacts on a device caused a commensurate drop in performance – a challenge facing both silicon and carbon nanotube transistor technologies.

IBM researchers had to forego traditional contact schemes and invented a metallurgical process akin to microscopic welding that chemically binds the metal atoms to the carbon atoms at the ends of nanotubes. This ‘end-bonded contact scheme’ allows the contacts to be shrunken down to below 10 nanometers without deteriorating performance of the carbon nanotube devices.


“For any advanced transistor technology, the increase in contact resistance due to the decrease in the size of transistors becomes a major performance bottleneck,” Gil added. “Our novel approach is to make the contact from the end of the carbon nanotube, which we show does not degrade device performance. This brings us a step closer to the goal of a carbon nanotube technology within the decade.”


You can join the discussion on IBM's breakthrough in Carbon Nanotubes based technology on the OC3D Forums


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Most Recent Comments

02-10-2015, 16:10:01

Today is a good day for tech!Quote

03-10-2015, 00:36:04

It'll be a decade before this stuff reaches the grubby paws of gamers.

Expect supercomputer firms to be the first to develop hardware around this like Cray. Then it'll trickle down into the enterprise/server space. And then a year or two from there you will see it appear in consumer-grade products.

But stuff like this really does get me excited. because it makes me wonder how much further we can push the envelope and spur innovation in technology. Sure, we have yet to cure cancer, but if this can accelerate finding a cure, then the world needs stuff like this.Quote

03-10-2015, 01:56:19

As great as this is, quantum computing will already be around the corner within a decade and that will easily blow anything we have ever had out of the water.Quote

05-10-2015, 04:28:09

Any integrated circuit package is likely to benefit from this technology. Just because it's the bleeding edge now doesn't mean it won't be ubiquitous for all electronics later. Any move beyond silicone is good as the limits in both process size and thermal capacity are being pushed pretty hard already.Quote

05-10-2015, 22:19:38

I wish I would have screen shot the post but about 2 years ago over on AnandTech an Intel Engineer made an off hand comment have knocking carbon dust out of their ear and mentioned about a 2016/2017 time frame for seeing more information about this type of information.

I wonder if when this happens we will move away from x86 architecture. If it's ever going to happen that would be the best time.Quote

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